year end notes (2)

Three days now since last Sunday. Death toll media tolled by has passed 27,000. For first time last night, air view reporting was made possible by SCTV, which covered a small densely populated Meulaboh, a small island-village that had been literally swallowed by rising tides. Communication and transportation has been cut dead. Its population used to be about 50 thousands. Official figure of dead bodies found has been released by MOH of over 10,000.

Corpses pilling up have begun rotting. Imminence of disease outbreaks loom too deadly to ignore. Though government finally opened Aceh to foreign journalists, aid workers, bureacracy is enemy within. As Jakarta Post quoted secretary to coordinating minister for social welfare Sutedjo as saying: “Jakarta-based foreign journalists could go direct to Aceh after they had secured a pass from local military authorities.” Aid workers and journalists not based here are required to submit application letters, which may take two weeks to process! Such bureaucrat should be…! Not, complaining isn’t good policy either.

Idle Tears took words out of my mouth, and I cannot agree more: Parachuting tons of rice, noodles and blankets will not be enough. Tomorrow and days after should be considered and decided fast. Empathy wanes easily with today’s soul-blunting infotainment. (Precisely what I said to I. last night, after exhausting herself from mobilizing and transporting boxes of food, blankets and used clothing to Aid Posts at Metro TV in the morning and on Wijaya XIII at night. Tomorrow we will do it again. But how long before we both run out energy?)

“A catastrophe the scale of this latest disaster calls for more than this simplistic, myopic and haphazard attitude. Without careful coordination and long-term planning, we are only offering passionless, hopeless grief to these victims.”

links to Aceh and North Sumatra Reliefs

This is to update recent postings.

Here's some quick but reliable info about how to help the victims of earthquakes and tsunami attacks in Indonesia.

Cash donations

Via bank transfer to the following addresses/accounts:

1. PT. Kompas Media Nusantara/DKK-Bencana Aceh. Bank BNI Jakarta Kota, acc. no. 001.007.55555.1001 or Bank BCA Gajah Mada branch, acc. no. 012.3016600. Via cash delivery to Redaksi Kompas, Kompas Building, Unit II Fl. IV, Jl. Palmerah Selatan 26-28, West Jakarta. This service lasts for 14 days, from 28 Dec-14 Jan only. Donations will be dispatched to Aceh and North Sumatra.

2. PT. Media Grup (Metro TV); Dompet Indonesia Menangis. Bank BCA, KCP Kedoya Baru, account no. 309.300.7979. Atas nama PT. Citra Media Nusa Purnama.
(Translation: PT. Media Group (Metro TV); Donation for "Indonesia in Tears", via Bank Central Asia. Accout no. 309.300.7979, c/o PT. Citra Media Nusa Purnama.)

3. Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI); "Lumbung Sosial TVRI"; Bank Mandiri, Cabang Kantor Kehutanan, acc. no. 102.000.303.0126.
(Translation: Television of Republic of Indonesia (TVRI); "TVRI Social Safety Net"; Bank Mandiri, Cabang Kantor Kehutanan, acc. no. 102.000.303.0126.

4. TPI Peduli, Bank BNI acc. no. 259.439.932001 ; or via Bank BRI acc. no. 0206.01.000.592.30.4 further information will be updated asap.

For non-cash/material reliefs via:

1) Metro TV, Contact tel. (62-21) 583 00077 ext. 21014, Pilar Mas Raya street, Kav. A-D, Kedoya, West Jakarta. (24 hours)

2) Grand Wijaya Center Blok A/8, Jl. Wijaya II, South Jakarta; Tel. (62-21) 720-2924. (24 hours)

3) Posko Bencana Alam Aceh:
Food, clothes, medicine directly can be sent to:
Jl. Wijaya 13 no. 21, South Jakarta . Contact persons: Mrs. Muna and Ms. LIA, HP: 0811896468;08129953359.(24 hours)


more media channels for aceh relief

Photos of victims.

TRANS TV: Donation via this TV station can be transferred to "Rekening Dompet Amal" or TransTV Relief Funds via Bank BCA, Setiabudi branch, acc. no: 766-012-1000 or Bank Mega Cabang Priority Banking, acc. no: 01-901-00-11-11110.

INDOSIAR: Indonesiar's WE CARE program (Program KITA PEDULI Indosiar), via Bank Central Asia (BCA), acc. no: 001-304-0009

(See also 27 Dec. posting.)


action for tsunami reliefs

Here's some quick but reliable info about how to help the victims of earthquakes and tsunami attacks in Indonesia.

Cash donation to victims in Aceh and Medan, Indonesia, can be done via bank transfer to the following addresses/accounts:

1. PT. Media Grup (Metro TV); Dompet Indonesia Menangis. Bank BCA, KCP Kedoya Baru, account no. 309.300.7979. Atas nama PT. Citra Media Nusa Purnama.
(Translation: PT. Media Group (Metro TV); Donation for "Indonesia in Tears", via Bank Central Asia. Accout no. 309.300.7979, c/o PT. Citra Media Nusa Purnama.)

2. Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI); "Lumbung Sosial TVRI"; Bank Mandiri, Cabang Kantor Kehutanan, acc. no. 102.000.303.0126.
(Translation: Television of Republic of Indonesia (TVRI); "TVRI Social Safety Net"; Bank Mandiri, Cabang Kantor Kehutanan, acc. no. 102.000.303.0126.

3. TPI Peduli, Bank BNI acc. no. 259.439.932001 ; or via Bank BRI acc. no. 0206.01.000.592.30.4 further information will be updated asap.

For non-cash/material reliefs via Metro TV, e.g. used/new clothing, food and medicine, 24 hours.), contact Tel. (62-21) 583 00077 ext. 21014, Pilar Mas Raya street, Kav. A-D, Kedoya, West Jakarta.)

Alternative address for non-cash aids: Grand Wijaya Center Blok A/8, Jl. Wijaya II, South Jakarta; Tel. (62-21) 720-2924; 24 hours.

(Source: Newstickers from respective TV station.)


year end notes (1)

2004 drawing fast to a close, another new year will soon be on us. A lot of tragedies happened this year: saddest of all concern the untimely death of Munir, a young, fearless human rights activist who got poisoned with arsenic; and recurrence of natural disasters in Nabire, Papua. As many good things were around, too: eg. campaigns against corruption that start turning into actions, promising start of new president and the cabinet. These days I've improved my html knowledge but spent too much time fiddling with it. Enough. Blogging has continued taking a lot of resources on my end. I'll focus more on content than format; be spontaneous and less severe with silly ideas.

merry christmas!

Happiness may come from something we receive or do. It may as well come from something that we don't. Big or small, it always is a state of mind. So, whatever it means to you, I wish you a Merry Christmas! May lots of long lasting happinesses befall upon you on this holy day--and througout the rest of 2004, and into the brave new year.



Beauty is a pleasure best enjoyed. To describe it is different pleasure. Artists of all times have tried to recapture it. A few succeeded in the venture, most drown themselves in it. An ancient quality, its secret is muteness. Beauty is no thing logical, nor is it illogical. It knows no gender and for it we need no explanation.

So much for a prelude. All I wanted to say today is I found a beautiful newspaper article this morning in the Post. About politics; goodness!


a misnomer

Most of what we know about the world or living is nothing but second hand. Partly due to human nature, the world or life through our incapacity and transience was, has been, and will always be reduced into concepts, ideas, and narratives. We, now and then with pauses in between, merely inteprete and reinterprete, basing upon these thinking blocks that come mostly handed down. Our existence thus basically consists of living to develop, and developing to live, those concepts, ideas and narratives--old and new. To get-along along this ephemera, some collective agreement about the world is needed in all its macro and microcosms. I suppose this is what’s called: collective consciousness. With it we partake in maintaining and establishing the natural fences of realities, material or immaterial alike, while continuing the ones available to us handy. ... More



It's been a positive word to me, but this morning this word "embed" whirled in my mind rather peculiarly. I somehow felt sure that this word would gain more significance in its meanings and employment than ever before. Anyway, today I have embedded a news clippings section into Onceuponaweblog. Can be useful for Indon's political/economic researchers. Let's see how it turns out.


death of a blog

I know that blogs come and go. Still I found it rather hard to learn that one finest blog I know, has been closed by the owner. An admirer all this time, I still do some checking times and again, in case this ms. demeanor changed her mind. She didn't; probably never will. I guess I just should stop inquiring. Its closure was lamentable--but also respectable. It has given me mixed feelings. Somewhere I feel proud of her.


Impressions on the SBY-Eclipsed Cabinet

When the new President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono began his cabinet announcement (on a late October 20 evening--just a day after he was sworn in President) saying that his cabinet would not please everybody, he was being very accurate. At around ten the next morning, all the ministers were sworn in and the President named it: Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu, or the United Indonesia Cabinet: comprising 36 ministers.
Meanwhile, the spirit of As-Long-As-It-Was-Not-Mega has awaited the triumph of a new president. As many people shared, SBY’s victory would be quickly associated with perceived progress. Conversely, a status quo or setback would have been a perception had Megawati won the election.
As the media have reported over, the new cabinet has been born out of political consensus and considerations, with motley rich blends of elements of business, bureaucrats, religions, ethnicity, educations.
The Jakarta Post (23/10) commended the symbolic diversity in this Cabinet—in terms of ethnicity, religion, gender, and profession--as a good starting point to enable the President to become, as he said in his maiden speech, a president "for each and every Indonesian." This paper praised the fact that the cabinet was far more exciting than the in the past when cabinets would be dominated by “mid-50 highly educated Javanese men from the Golkar bureaucrats.”
The people power has helped bring SBY atop. They may have based their trust upon personal charisma, and this same power can render positive sentiments to the president’s cabinet. Some would argue that such expectation or sentiment is but psychological, but aren’t they real assets or commodities in real business and politics which must be well managed?
Never before has a president in this country been given such a strongest legitimacy. Lucky is a president who has all the moral support to preside. SBY does. This strong president will be the lighthouse for his ministers. And it seems that he is aware of this. Perhaps he realizes that what he does in the first days will determine the fate of his cabinet.
At the onset, during the inauguration, he put it loud and firm: "You have promised to stay loyal to the state and to work hard and honestly as well as to stay clean. If you are involved in any violation (of the contract), including corruption, and are declared guilty under the law, you must be prepared to resign and accept sanctions in accordance with the prevailing laws. The ministerial position is a sign of trust and honor, but it also serves as a challenge for you to do your best.”
SBY knew people would scrutinize his ministers. To this he said, “You do not have to respond to these doubts with words, but answer through your work.” SBY added to them concerning public skepticisms over some ministers.
Following is a brief profile of some cabinet members that seem to be under the spotlight.
A Brief Look at Key Ministers

Following is a quick look at the members of Indonesia’s new cabinet.

Adisutjipto: Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs
Conservative; no hardliner - Adisutjipto, a retired admiral and former Navy chief, served as Indonesian Defense Forces (TNI) commander under former president Abdurrahman Wahid from October 1999 to July 2001.

Aburizal Bakrie: Coordinating Minister for the Economy
Respectable, powerful - He is a prominent indigenous tycoon with a vast range of business activities; former chairman of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Earlier this year he ran in a convention to become Golkar Party’s candidate for the presidential election. He lost but not disgracefully.

Alwi Shihab: Coordinating Minister for People’s Welfare
An elegant, moderate - Islamic scholar who promotes tolerance, Shihab was “wrongly” posted as foreign minister by Abdurrahman Wahid. He presently chairs the National Awakening Party (PKB). Some conflict may come up internally over the status of this minister in the PKB.

Hassan Wirajuda: Foreign Affairs Minister
Elegant, knowledgeable, suave, still irreplaceable after Alatas - As many expected, Wirajuda retained the same cabinet position under former president Megawati Sukarnoputri. He was a career diplomat, Indonesia’s permanent representative to the United Nations and other international organizations until July 2000.

Juwono Sudarsono: Defense Minister
Highly Respected; Well-liked - A prominent military analyst and former ambassador to Britain, Juwono previously served as defense minister under Wahid. He is also a former deputy governor of the National Resilience Institute (Lemhanas).

Hamid Awaluddin: Law and Human Rights Minister
Knowledgeable; articulate but critized as being not transparent when serving at KPU - Awaluddin is a member of the General Elections Commission (KPU). He headed the KPU’s division for the procurement of ballot papers. It was rumored that even SBY first denied him.

Jusuf Anwar: Finance Minister
Little known; but with relevant experience - Anwar is the Asian Development Bank’s executive director for Indonesia. He has previously served as chairman of the Indonesia Capital Market Supervisory Board and secretary general of the Finance Ministry. According to many economists, we cannot expect something revolutionary to happen under his leadership. He will be a safe player.

Purnomo Yusgiantoro: Energy and Mineral Resources Minister
OPEC President; very experienced; although to people at large his contributions are unknown - Purnomo held the same position under Megawati and Wahid. The decision to re-appoint him means that Indonesia will keep the OPEC presidency until the end of this year.

Andung Nitimihardja: Industry Minister
Andung Nitimihardja is chief commissioner of state electricity company PLN. He is also a former executive of the State Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), where he served as deputy chairman for national business development. I have no comments for this minister.

Marie Pangestu: Trade Minister
(Hailed by international and domestic markets but overshadowed with criticism over akinness with IMF) –A US trained economist, Pangestu is a former executive director of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).

Hatta Rajasa: Transportation Minister
Questionable; political - He served as research and technology minister under Megawati. He is a member of the National Mandate Party (PAN) of Amien Rais, but even his party made statement saying that this man would only be a liability to the cabinet.

Fahmi Idris: Manpower and Transmigration Minister
Intelligent; highly experienced politician; suave; sacked by Golkar but became minister instead - A powerful member of Golkar Party, Idris served as manpower minister under former president B.J. Habibie. He was recently suspended from Golkar’s executive board for defying an order to support Megawati in last month’s presidential election. Several reports have wrongly stated that Idris served as manpower minister under Suharto.

Siti Fadilah Supari: Health Minister
A health professional, Supari is a doctor in cardiology. Her assignment in this post has received very little attention from the media. According to some within the Ministry of Health, this minister is a misnomer. As a clinician with no experience in public health, she has a lot to learn, and quickly too. SBY’s nomination over her probably may have stemmed from a gender point of view. In total the cabinet only has 4 female ministers, less than 30% as advocated by the UN.

Bambang Sudibyo: National Education Minister
Sudibyo, a professor of accounting, is a member of PAN and served as finance minister in the Wahid administration. This figure is pretty well liked within the circle at the ministry of finance, but his appointment as minister of education has tarnished the image of SBY and JK. He has to be open minded to win the hearts of Echelons 1 and 2 at the Ministry.

Rachmat Witoelar: Environment Minister
A former Indonesian ambassador to Russia, Witoelar has long been close to Yudhoyono and helped to orchestrate his rise to power.

Sri Mulyani Indrawati: National Development Planning Minister
A US-trained economist, she spent a year with the International Monetary Fund, where was in charge of Southeast Asian affairs. I have had the chance to talk to her several times when accompanying Mr. Hatano from the Hong Kong office at some appointments.

Abdul Rahman Saleh: Attorney General
To many of us, the psychological value that this man symbolizes perhaps exceeds those of all coordinating ministers combined! If there are flaws at the United Indonesia cabinet, this man is perceived as having higher values than the flaws. A Supreme Court judge, Saleh hit the headlines in February 2004 when he was on a panel of five judges that overturned Golkar Party chairman Akbar Tanjung’s corruption conviction. After the ruling, Saleh read out a lengthy dissenting decision, saying Tanjung had engaged in "corrupt practice" and was guilty of "shameful conduct because he failed to show minimal appropriate efforts to protect state money”.

Sudi Silalahi: Cabinet Secretary
His friendship with SBY seems to symbolize that Indonesia cannot abandon its own history. Could this explain why the people chose SBY, over more radical or reform-minded candidates? Silalahi, a retired three-star lieutenant general and former East Java Military Command chief, previously served as secretary of the Coordinating Ministry for Political and Security Affairs. He played a key role Yudhoyono’s rise to power. His friendship with SBY dates back more than 30 years when they were still military cadets.
Some media e.g. Tempo magazine (25-31 Oct), have started with their slanting news Some already started labeling SBY as a flip-flop during the cabinet formation. Some media have begun interviewing people from within the SBY’s circle that finally got left behind in bitterness, after the new president selected other candidates for certain posts. Cover both sides of the story, they say…
All things considered, with the fact that opinions can be so diversed in this free-speech country, what more could be expected than positive expectation itself? It surely is better than the opposite. Positive expectation would at least delay unnecessary formation of negative campaigns, which can come from anywhere including the media. As a modern spiritual moslem leader and successful billionnaire Abdullah Gymnastiar, let’s hope for the best for this nation. For the inauguration of the new president, the handing over of tasks from previous to new officials, and the selection and inauguration all took place in the holy month of Ramadan. The month of hopes and blessings--the month God said far better than many others.


a very short story

As soon as she learned that today was her last day of her long holiday, the 4.11 year old girl started to sob. First quietly then loudly enough that I could hear it from my study. From the threshold I noticed her body shudder. She finally couldn't help herself from not throwing up. Learning what had happened, I asked if she could whimp without vomitting. She shook her head several times.

"Did you enjoy your holiday?" This time she gave definite nods, almost too quickly. Well ... cry on, if you need it." I offered her a big hug, and she didn't refuse.

At the time of sadness, be sad. Cry if you must, little darling. May the teardrops help cleanse your tiny soul. I wish I could join by shedding a tear.


little darling that has to go

Quicktionary a tiny book was published by the end of 2001. Intended for critical readers, it contains almost 5,000 words difficult for Indonesian advanced learners or teachers of English. I'd prepared it for over 4 years. To my disappointment the printing and binding quality was not as expected, so it couldn't sell. I still have over a hundred copies left at home. Any fellow blogger interested will be able to get its free PDF version, which I'm still preparing. The actual book can also obtained free via regular postal service, but please understand I can't pick up the tab. In any case, just write me or leave your comment below.

Name : Critical Reader's Quicktionary (Limited Edition, September 2001)
Product category : Dictionary, a bibelot for highly advanced users of English
Author : Nad Hays
Publisher : Le Sanctuaire Quality Publishing, Indonesia
Dimension : 5 x 8 cm
Thickness : Nearly 300 pages
Printing/Binding : Art carton 310 gr; HVS 70 gr.
Price : NA


happy eid mubarak - happy eid fitr!

the holy month of ramadhan has been with us for almost a month (and almost unnoticed by some. tomorrow is the last fasting day. this month of maghfirah will depart soon with a promise to come again next year.

here's greeting for a happy eid mubarak to all bloggers in the world. here's wishing for a better world with lasting peace. salam!


Kekeliruan 33: Klaim yang membebankan pembuktian kepada pihak lain

24 September 2004

Fallacy jenis ini masih berkerabat dekat dengan Fallacy sebelumnya (nomor berapa ya?)-- yaitu klaim atas dasar ketidaktahuan. Dalam setiap klaim, beban pembuktian seharusnya selalu pada si pembuat klaim (Lihat juga: Readme3rd).

Fallacy jenis ini justru memindahkan beban tersebut kepada orang lain yang menentang atau mempertanyakan klaimnya. Jadi, begitu ia tidak dapat memberi bukti atas klaimnya, ia menantang pihak lain untuk membuktikan bahwa ia salah.

“Microsoft itu perusahaan raksasa terbesar di bumi, kalau tidak percaya buktikan ada perusahaan yang lebih besar dari dia!”
“Buktikan bahwa Neil Armstrong benar-benar mendarat di bulan!”
"Saya yakin homoseksualitas itu disebabkan oleh faktor biologis dan saya berani menantang siapa saja yang dapat membuktikan jika saya salah!"


Kekeliruan 32: Klaim dengan argumen yang membawa-bawa hukum alam

Contoh duluan:

"Salah satu ciri dari dunia yang alamiah adalah adanya kompetisi. Binatang berjuang antara satu dengan yang lain lain untuk menguasai dan sumber daya alam. Kapitalisme, perjuangan kompetitif untuk meiliki modal, tak lain adalah bagian yang tak terelakkan dari sifat kemanusiaan kita, karena memang demikian dunia alamiah."

"Homoseksualitas sudah tentu tidak alamiah. Kapan terakhir kali anda melihat dua hewan sesama jenis melakukan hubungan seksual?"

"Ketertarikan manusia kepada mereka yang “cantik” atau “tampan” paralel dengan insting pada burung dan mamalia. Cinta, oleh karena itu, tak lain tak bukan hanyalah insting belaka.”

Kekeliruan berpikir jenis ini bersandar pada argumentasi bahwa, karena manusia merupakan produk dunia alamiah, maka kita harus menirukan perilaku dunia alamiah.

Pembuktian: menyusul, neeh
posted by Nad | 11:17 PM | 0 comments


selingan: tentang Tuhan dan batu besar itu ...

"Jika Tuhan Maha Kuasa maka Ia dapat menciptakan batu besaar sekali sehingga Ia tidak kuasa lagi mengangkatnya."

Contoh di atas saya kutip dari ingatan ketika membaca buku yang saya lupa judulnya, karangan Jujun S--bertahun-tahun yang lalu.

Kekeliruan logika semacam ini menurut saya, sekarang, berhubungan erat dengan Kekeliruan no. 29 dan 30. Setujukah anda?

Kekeliruan 31: Klaim dengan argumen yang membawa-bawa orang banyak

Consensus gentium; juga dikenal sebagai bandwagon fallacy

Argumen dalam klaim ini menyuruh orang menerima klaim semata-mata karena banyak orang mempercayai atau mempraktikkannya.

Contoh:“Kebanyakan orang percaya pada Tuhan; makanya, apa kita mau menyalahkan berjuta-juta umat manusia?” "Saya cuma ingin mengatakan, jutaan orang percaya astrologi; jadi tidak mungkin jika tidak ada kebenaran di dalamnya."
(Catatan: Dulu, semua orang percaya bahwa bumi adalah pusat tatasurya.)

Argumentum ad antiquitatem
Variasi dari fallacy ini adalah Argumen yang Membawa-Bawa Tradisi-- argumentum ad antiquitatem, yang menyatakan sesuatu itu baik atau buruk berhubung sudah “diterima” sejak jaman baheula.

"Dari dulu hingga sekarang, kita selalu yakin bahwa..."

Variasi lain yang berupa kebalikannya argumen atas dasar tradisi adalah yang Membesar-besarkan Sesuatu yang Baru (argumentum ad novitatem):

Contoh: “Ini yang terbaik—upgrade terbaru!” "Penelitian terakhir menunjukkan bahwa Jendela PX Professional, benar-benar sistem operasi dahsyat!
(Catatan: Perusahaan pembuatnya sampai sekarang masih harus memperbaiki sistem operasi terbarunya, yang ternyata banyak cacatnya.)

Tunjukkan bahwa hanya karena dipercaya orang banyak atau karena tradisi, atau justru karena baru, tidak dengan sendirinya berarti sesuatu itu langsung dapat kita terima; alasan semacam ini tidak memberi kita fakta yang berguna untuk pembuktian.

Ada yang punya contoh lain?


Kekeliruan 30: Klaim dengan argumen yang menyangkal argumen sebelumnya


Jika Tuhan muncul di depanku, aku akan percaya kebenaran kitab suci. Tuhan tidak pernah menampakkan diri, jadi kitab suci tidak dapat dipercaya.

Setiap argumen dengan konstruksi seperti berikut juga tidak sahih:

Jika A, maka B
Bukan A
Jadi, Bukan B

Tunjukkan bahwa meski argumennya betul, kesimpulan yang ditarik bisa salah. Tanpa kemunculan Tuhan, kitab suci tetap dapat dipercaya.
posted by Nad | 6:06 PM | 0 comments


Kekeliruan 29: Klaim berisi argumen yang menerima argumen yang disampaikan belakangan

Sekali lagi, contoh duluan:

Jika pabrik itu mencemari sungai, kita akan mendapatkan banyak ikan mati. Sekarang lihat, banyak sekali ikan mati di sungai, jadi pabrik itu telah mencemari sungai.

Setiap argumen dengan konstruksi seperti ini, cacat.

Jika A maka B
Oleh karena itu, A

Tunjukkan bahwa meski argumennya betul, kesimpulan yang ditarik bisa salah. Kita bisa mengatakan bahwa terjadinya suatu hal bisa merupakan konsekuensi hal lain. Kematian ikan di sungai bisa disebabkan hal lain, seperti usaha penangkapan dengan listrik atau racun.


Kekeliruan 28: Klaim dengan argumen yang memakai kausalitas terbalik


Meningkatnya AIDS adalah akibat pengajaran pendidikan seks di sekolah. (Pendidikan seks di sekolah justru diberikan disebabkan karena menjalarnya AIDS.)

Argumen dalam klaim di atas membalikkan hubungan sebab akibat.

Berikan argumen kausalitas dengan menunjukkan bahwa hubungan sebab-akibat tersebut justru terbalik.

(Ada yang punya contoh lain nggak seh?)


Kekeliruan 27: Klaim dengan argumen relevan tetapi kurang kuat

Sesuatu (obyek atau peristiwa) yang dianggap sebagai penyebab memang benar dan relevan merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab namun tidak begitu signifikan bila dibandingkan dengan faktor penyebab lain.

Kekeliruan jenis ini tidak berlaku jika semua faktor penyebab lain sama-sama tidak signifikan. Jadi bukan merupakan fallacy jika anda mengatakan bahwa dengan mencoblos partai X anda ikut andil memenangkan partai tersebut karena nilai dukungan anda sama bobotnya dengan nilai pemilih lain, dan oleh karena itu sama-sama merupakan bagian dari faktor penyebab.


Merokok menyebabkan polusi udara Jakarta. (Betul tetapi efek dari asap rokok tidak seberapa dibandingkan dengan asap kendaraan bermotor.)

Dengan menyalakan oven sepanjang malam, anda ikut menyebabkan pemanasan global.

Tunjukkan sebab lain yang lebih signifikan.


Kekeliruan 26: Klaim dengan argumen yang ambigu karena aksen/penekanan (4 dari 4)


Argumen dalam klaim jenis ini diucapkan dengan memberi penekanan pada kata/frasa tertentu untuk mengusulkan makna yang berbeda dari isi asli proposisi.


Klasi kapal, yang sedang mencari cara membalas dendam kepada sang Kapten, menulis dalam jurnalnya, "Si Kapten hari ini tidak mabuk!" (Caranya menekankan apa yang terjadi hari itu menyiratkan bahwa sang Kapten biasanya mabuk.)

Ini contoh dari Copi, p. 117, seperti dikutip dalam Stephen's Fallacies.


Kekeliruan 25: Klaim dengan argumen yang memakai ambiguitas konstruksi kalimat (3 dari 4)


Argumen dalam klaim ini taksa atau ambigu karena struktur kalimatnya.

Fallacy jenis ini disebabkan ketaksaan struktur kalimat (sintaksis); fallacy terjadi karena penyusunan kata-kata dalam kalimat.


Istri pria yang berasal dari Hong Kong itu seorang pengusaha sukses.
Semalam saya melihat maling dengan teropong.

Temukan frasa yang taksa dan tunjukan semua interpretasi yang mungkin.


Kekeliruan 24: Klaim dengan argumen yang menggunakan ambiguitas kata (2 dari 4)


Kata yang sama dipakai lebih dari sekali dengan makna berbeda.


Tulisan itu mengatakan "Daerah bebas rokok,” dan karena bebas, ayo kita merokok di sana.

Temukan kata yang dipakai dua kali dan tunjukkan bahwa arti masing-masing berbeda, lalu tunjukkan definisi untuk kata pertam tidak tepat untuk dipakai terhadap kata kedua.


Kekeliruan 23: Klaim dengan argumen yang taksa (1 dari 4)

Sedikit ttg ketaksaan atau ambiguitas: Dalam Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia, padanan ambiguous adalah taksa. Kesesatan berpikir dalam bagian ini terjadi karena kekaburan makna sebuah kata atau frasa, sehingga menimbulkan interpretasi yang berbeda.

Ketaksaan dapat muncul karena kata atau frasa tersebut memiliki lebih dari satu makna, atau karena kata/frasa tersebut memang tidak dikenal artinya, sehingga artinya tidak dapat ditentukan.

Termasuk dalam fallacies akibat ketaksaan adalah sbb:

Equivocation (Istilah yang sama dipakai secara berbeda)
Amphiboly (Struktur kalimat menimbulkan interpretasi yang berbeda)
Accent (Tekanan suara atau aksen menyebabkan perbedaan makna kata)

Masing-masing fallacy ini akan dibahas selanjutnya.

Kekeliruan 22: Argumen Manusia Jerami

(Straw Man)

Pemakai argumen dalam klaim semacam ini menyerang argumen pihak lain yang berbeda dari argumennya; biasanya dengan argumen susulan tersebut lebih lemah.


Mereka yang menentang Referendum Timor-Timur barangkali ingin melihat Timor lepas dari Indonesia. Tapi kita ingin Timor Timur tetap bagian NKRI.

Kita harus memulai wajib militer. Orang-orang yang tidak mau bergabung dengan militer karena atas dasar rasa kurang senang. Tapi harus disadari bahwa ada hal yang lebih penting daripada kesenangan.

Tunjukan bahwa argumen terserbut telah diselewengkan dengan menunjukkan bahwa pihak lawan justru memiliki argumen yang lebih baik. Berikan contoh argumen lain yang lebih kuat.


Kekeliruan 21: Klaim dengan argumen yang irrelevan

- Ignoratio elenchi

Arguman yang ingin membuktikan sesuatu hal malah jadinya membuktikan kesimpulan lain.


Anda harus mendukung undang-undang baru tentang perumahan. Kita tidak bisa terus menyaksikan orang miskin tinggal di jalanan; jadi kita harus membuat rumah yang terjangkau. (Kita mungkin setuju bahwa perumahan itu penting meskipun kita tidak setuju dengan undang-undang perumahan.)

Tunjukkan bahwa keseimpulan yang disampaikan bukanlah kesimpulan yang dicoba dijabarkan oleh lawan bicara.


Kekeliruan 20: Klaim dengan argumen yang irrelevan

(1) - Petitio Principii

Kekeliruan klaim jenis ini adalah karena kebenaran kesimpulannya diasumsikan dalam salah satu argumen. Seringkali kesimpulan dinyatakan dalam premis dalam bentuk yang hanya berbeda sedikit. Dalam kasus yang lebih halus, argumennya justru berupa konsekuensi dari kesimpulan.


Karena saya tidak berbohong, maka saya mengatakan kebenaran.

Kita tahu Tuhan itu ada, karena memang demikian menurut kitab suci. Apa yang disebut dalam kitab suci pasti benar, karena kitab suci berasal dari Tuhan, dan Tuhan kan tidak pernah bohong. (Di sini, kita dipaksa harus setuju dengan keberadaan Tuhan agar percaya bahwa Tuhan menulis kitab suci.)

Tunjukan bahwa untuk menerima suatu premi kita harus setuju bahwa kesimpulannya benar.

Punya contoh lain?

Kekeliruan 19: Klaim dengan argumen yang keliru akibat kompleksitas permasalahan

Suatu efek dapat ditimbulkan oleh beberapa faktor atau peristiwa, sementara yang disebutkan dalam argumen hanya satu atau sebagian kecilnya saja. Variasi lain adalah Kekeliruan jenis feedback loop di mana efek merupakan bagian dari penyebab itu sendiri.


Kecelakaan itu disebabkan oleh kondisi semak-belukar. (Betul, tetapi jika si sopir tidak mengantuk dan pejalan kaki menyeberang dengan benar, kecelakaan tidak akan terjadi.)

Gagalnya lifter Indonesia di Olimpiade Yunani karena pelatihnya, yang berasal dari Cina, tidak diikutsertakan. (Mungkin betul, tapi hal itu bukan satu-satunya alasan.)

Orang-orang menjadi takut dengan meningkatnya kriminalitas. (Benar, ketakutan tersebut menyebabkan orang menjadi panik dan melanggar hukum, yang akhirnya juga meningkatkan kriminalitas itu sendiri.)

Tunjukkan bahwa semua faktor penyebab, dan tidak saja yang disebutkan dalam argumen, dibutuhkan untuk terciptanya efek yang bersangkutan.

Punya contoh lainkah?


Kekeliruan 17: Klaim dengan generalisasi khusus bagi situasi umum

Kebalikan dari fallacy sebelumnya, pengecualian terhadap generalisasi khusus diterapkan untuk kasus yang memerlukan generalisasi.


Karena kita mengijinkan pemakaian heroin pada pasien yang sekarat, maka kita harus konsisten dengan cara memperbolehkan heroin bagi semua.

Bapak sudah memberi keringanan kepada Joko, jadi Bapak juga harus memberi keringanan kepada kami dalam penyerahan tugas akhir. (Sementara sipembicara dan yang diajak bicara sama-sama tahu bahwa si Joko sedang dirawat di rumah sakit karena tertabrak truk.)

Tentukan generalisasinya dan tunjukkan bahwa kasus spesial tersebut adalah pengecualian terhadap generalisasi.

Punya contoh sendiri?

Kekeliruan 18: Post hoc ergo propter hoc

Istilah Latin tersebut berarti "setelah ini maka disebabkan oleh ini".
Argumen dalam klaim ini sesat karena mengasumsikan bahwa sesuatu yang terjadi setelah satu hal lain dianggap sebagai akibat dari sesuatu yang terjadi lebih dulu tersebut.


Imigrasi massal ke Timor Barat dari Timor Leste meningkat. Setelah itu, kesejahteraan meningkat. Oleh karena itu, meningkatnya imigrasi telah menyebabkan perbaikan kesejahteraan

Hebat ‘kali obat ini! Aku minum Pentogin; tiga jam kurang kemudian, sakit kepalaku benar-benar lenyap!.

Punya contoh lainkah saudaraku?

Cari rangkaian peristiwa yang terjadi saling menyusul tersebut dan tunjukkan bahwa: (i) hasilnya mungkin akan terjadi tanpa penyebab, atau (ii) barangkali efek yang timbul disebabkan oleh faktor lain.


Kekeliruan 16: Klaim dengan generalisasi umum untuk situasi khusus


Sesuai Undang-Undang Lalin, anda tidak boleh mengemudi dengan kecepatan di atas 50 km per jam, jadi meskipun orangtua Anda tidak dapat bernapas, anda tidak boleh ngebut seperti itu.

Mengembalikan barang yang kita pinjam itu adalah hal yang baik. Makanya, ayo kembalikan golok ini sama lelaki gila yang minjemin kamu. (Adaptasi dari Plato's Republic, Buku I).

Dalam contoh di atas, aturan umum diterapkan secara membabi buta untuk keadaan yang memerlukan pengecualian.

Identifikasikan penyataan generalisasi tersebut dan tunjukkan bahwa hal tersebut tidak berlaku universal. Lalu perlihatkan bahwa dalam keadaan sebagaimana dalam contoh di atas, generalisasi semacam itu tidak perlu diterapkan.

Punya contoh sendiri?


Kekeliruan 15: Klaim dengan menyembunyikan informasi kunci


Kesebelasan Arsenal pasti akan memenangkan pertandingan berikutnya melawan MU; kami telah memenangkan sembilan dari sepuluh pertandingan terakhir dengan mereka. (Fakta hipotetis: Misalnya sang pelatih, Winger, tidak mengatakan bahwa delapan pemain kunci mereka tengah mengalami cedera serius.)

Dalam klaim semacam ini informasi yang merupakan bukti kunci dan yang dapat melemahkan argumen, tidak disertakan.

Cari dan berikan bukti kunci yang tidak disertakan dalam argumen dan tunjukan bagaimana informasi tersebut mengubah kesimpulan.

Punya contoh sendiri?


Kekeliruan 14: Klaim dengan analogi yang keliru

Dalam analogi, kemiripan dua obyek atau peristiwa A dan B diperlihatkan. Lalu diargumentasikan bahwa karena A memiliki ciri-ciri P, maka B juga akan begitu. Analogi akan gagal bila dua obyek A and B tersebut berbeda secara signifikan sehingga lebih kuat daripada kemiripan yang disinyalir.


Kaum pekerja itu ibarat paku. Seperti paku dipukul di kepala untuk dipakai, maka mereka juga begitu. (Sumber: Stephen’s Fallacies)

Pemerintah itu seperti bisnis, jadi seperti halnya bisnis harus sensitif khususnya terhadap kebutuhan pegawai lapis bawah, demikian pula halnya pemerintah. (Tetapi sebenarnya karena tujuan pemerintah dan bisnis sangat berbeda, jadi mungkin mereka juga harus memenuhi kriteria yang berbeda pula. Sumber: Stephen’s Fallacies)

Cari dua obyek atau peristiwa yang diperbandingkan. Tunjukkan bahwa keduanya punya perbedaan tertentu yang dapat mempengaruhi kesimpulan.

Punya contoh sendiri?


The Importance of Being Arrogant

* A note on an Independence Day

MOST OF US don’t value arrogance. We dislike the cocky ones walking with heads held high and noses up-turned. We shun colleagues who are fond of boasting. Only rarely do we like those that display overpride and overconfidence in themselves while giving others little consideration in return. Befriending horn tooters is a hard thing to do.

Our society puts cooperation, compromise, harmony, and respect high above many other values. Ample room is always available for good qualities, but no, not for arrogance. Arrogance is bad, and we must be good.

Our great, great grandparents first taught our great grandparents, then our grandparents fisted it in to our parents that we be considerate, modest, respectful, polite and friendly. The process repeats with our parents passing it on us (and pretty likely so will we on our children).

At certain points in life we were each curious to question such values. Somewhere along the path, though, curiosity waned, and the drives for self-exploration withered with departed chidhood. We ended up sticking to old values like a blind faith. We learned to accept and join the crowd of commonalities.
Early in life we found what an unfriendly world it is we live in. We sought solace to agreeableness as a mode thinkable of survival. Did we ever mind falling into the abyss of modesty, compromise, or commonness, as long as we could stick together? No, we Indonesians have decided to be liked and make as many friends as possible. By this, a peculiar trepidation of being disliked developed, and together we formed a “friendly” mass.


Any self-claimed friendly nation such as ours places friendliness in a lofty pedestal for friendliness is a very important matter. As a nation we mustn’t be cocky but rather ought to be modest and wear our best smiles—if possible the ones that can best obscure conspicuous lies, hypocrisy, and stupidity accumulating over generations. No man being an island entirely by itself, co-operation with other nations is necessary to pursue what we aspire as one nation. We do know this, for we are a sensitive nation. We do know, for instance, that globalization offers yet another uncertainty in which we are doomed to lose out. We know that international relation and co-operation has mostly been mere business. Fine; a ll we want is just be friendly. Why not aim at something a little more noble, or something higher such as at being number one? Ah, come on. (Someone would say, :”Ojo ngoyo lho mas....”)


Ojo ngoyo (or Don’t persist) rings like a soothing saying--especially to wounded losers. This attitude arguably originates from the time of extreme constraint where room for improvement was infinitesimal, or opportunities extremely odd--such as during colonialism.

And the effect of colonialism seems like a remnant disease. Its worst, most dreadful after-effect isn’t physical. It is mental full of chronic disease, one example of which is this sort of attitude. We might have adopted it to avoid or redeem continual frustration. It is not difficult to see how it comfortably makes us dumb and meek, serving like a cheap, modesty-layered candy that arrests persistence, impedes tenacity, reduces standards and limits our own dreams, all which significantly determining our every achievement and, in turn, our total accomplishment as a nation.


The question is: are we right in blaming it all on colonialism? If this assumption is sound, are we still cling to it today, after over 50 years of independence? More than ever, as far as this ngoyo attitude is concerned, redefining of basic concepts is necessary.

Back to arrogance, arrogance, if but little, does show respect--at least, self-respect. It shows power and authority—at least the shadows of them. Arrogance rules the world! In arrogance exist the seeds of masterworks, void of the seeds of banality and mediocrity.

As it takes all kinds of people to make this world, thank God these people exist. Not only because they save us from being overbored with dull politeness, but because it is impossible to totally dislike them. We are not capable of just hating those who blow trumpets. Sometimes we admire the tunes. We just hide such admiration somewhere. For giving life more color at least, we ought to be thankful to them.

Only a few dare to be arrogant, for arrogance calls for courage and skills, too. True, playing for a demanding audience requires courage. Blowing a real trumpet needs skills; cacophony and good melody are two different things. When it is justifiable, arrogance is no more. It becomes music. And “music is all of heaven above that we have below.”


Prometheus blogged!

21 July 2004

Rangkaian beberapa posting sbb disarankan dibaca berurutan.

- Proyek Prometheus

- Tentang klaim & argumen

- Tentang penalaran yang keliru (Fallacies)

- Kekeliruan Berpikir: Jenis dan Contohnya

Acuan Utama

Stephen's Guide to Logical Fallacies, University of Alberta. http://datanation.com/fallacies/howto.htm (Sumber utama yang inspiratif.)

Foundation for Critical Thinking. www.criticalthinking.org

BROOKE NOEL MOORE and RICHARD PARKER; Critical Thinking: Evaluating Claims and Arguments in Everyday Life,
Mayfield Publishing Company, California, 1986.

RICHARD W. PAUL, Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, 1990.

MCLI Forum. Vol, 2, 2001